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Trinity
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PostSubject: Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt   Sat Sep 17, 2016 12:31 pm

Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt



Pharaoh is a title used to describe the ancient Egyptian rulers of all periods.  Meaning "Great House", it originally referred to the king's palace, over time it became interchangeable with the traditional Egyptian word for king, nswt.  There are several important King Lists that provide details of Ancient Egypt's Pharaohs, including The Palermo Stone, the Royal List of Abydos and the Royal Lists of Karnak and Saqqara as well as those from Manetho.



King: Hor-Aha
Dynasty 1
Length of Reign: 62 Years
Date: 3050 - 2890BC

First King of the First Dynasty, his name means 'Fighting Hawk'.
His Nebti name 'Men' appear side by side on ivory labels.
Founded a temple to the Goddess Neith at Sais in the Delta.
Founder of the capital city at Memphis.
He reigned according to Manetho for 62 years.
His tomb at Abydos (B 19-15) is the largest in the north-western section of the cemetery.
Thought by many as being identical with king Menes, named in later sources as the founder of Egypt.

Hor-Aha succeeded Narmer as ruler of both Upper and Lower Egypt, so it is assumed that Narmer was his father. Hor-Aha continued the process of unifying Egypt into a single kingdom. Military expeditions against the Nubians in the south, spread his rule as far as the first cataract of the Nile. Berenid was his queen, and his mother was probably Neithotpe. Aha's son and heir, Djer, was born to a lesser ranked wife, Hent.  Two legends grew in later eras about Aha. One was that he was killed by a hippopotamus, the other that he was attacked by wild dogs and saved by a crocodile in the Faiyum. He is credited with founding the city of Crocodilopolis as a result.  More recently a joint American excavation from Yale University, the Pennsylvania University Museum and New York University, found a chamber used for burial rituals and found a cache of 200 rough ceramic beer and wine jars. The mortuary enclosure of King Hor-Aha, also included a cultic chapel.

The enclosure in believed to be where the body of King Hor-Aha was kept during burial rituals. The enclosure also included three rectangular tombs with wooden ceilings covered with reed matting. The enclosure also had a chamber of pots with hieroglyphs indicating they were made during the reign of Hor-Aha.

Attestations:

  • Tomb in Abydos
  • Inscription on a vessel from tomb Z2 in Zawiyet el-Aryan
  • Seal impressions from tomb 3357 in Saqqara
  • Stone vessel with his name from tomb 3036 in Saqqara
  • Alabaster vessel with his name from Helwan
  • Seal impressions in a big tomb at Naqada


Objects in the Petrie Museum: UC 11751A (fragment of a rock crystal vase)


Glazed fragment of a fiance vessel bearing the name of the pharaoh Aha, early 1st dynasty, circa 3000 BC.
Found at the temple of Osiris at Abydos. EA 38010


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PostSubject: Re: Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt   Sat Sep 17, 2016 12:53 pm

King: Djer
Dynasty 1
Length of Reign: 41 Years
Date: 3050 - 2890BC
Pharaoh: Djer
Date: 3050 - 2890BC



Second King of the First Dynasty Horus Djer, whose Horus name means 'Horus who succours'.
Djer (Manetho's Athothis) or Itit (his nomen) is said to have reigned for 57 years. 
Son of Aha and Hent (or Khenthap), built a palace at Memphis; whose wife was Queen Herneith. 
There are also indications of a possible military campaign against a country named Setjet, probably Palestine or Sinai.

Notable Events:
Second King of the First Dynasty Horus Djer (Manetho's Athothis) or Itit (his nomen) is said to have reigned for 57 years.  Son of Aha and Hent (or Khenthap), built a palace at Memphis; whose wife was Queen Herneith.  There are also indications of a possible military campaign against a country named Setjet, probably Palestine or Sinai. 
Evidence comes from ivory and wood labels from Saqqara and Abydos.  Around his tomb at Abydos (Tomb O) were over 300 satellite burials of retainers who had gone to the grave at the same time as the king.

Attestations:

  • Tomb O and funerary enclosure in Abydos (the tomb and funerary complex of the king)
  • Seal impressions from the tomb 2185 in Saqqara
  • Seal impressions from the tomb 3471 in Saqqara
  • Inscription from the tomb 3035 in Saqqara. The tomb belongs to the official Hemaka, who served under Den.
  • Inscription from the tomb 3503 in Saqqara
  • Inscription from the tomb 3506 in Saqqara
  • Seal impression and inscriptions from Helwan
  • Jar from Turah with the name of the king


Objects in the Petrie Museum:

  • UC 16182 ivory tablet from Abydos, subsidiary tomb 612 of the enclosure of Djer
  • UC 16172 copper adze with the name of king Djer


Frank H McClung Museum, University of Tennessee, Knoxville

  • Clay Jar Sealing: Measures 12.5 cm long x 9 cm wide x 5.5 cm high, and bears in relief the name of King Djer, or Zer-Ta


 Stela of King Djer from Abydos, Egyptian Museum Cairo.


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PostSubject: Re: Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt   Sat Sep 17, 2016 1:27 pm

King: Djet
Dynasty 1
Length of Reign: Less Than 1 Year
Date: 3050 - 2890BC


Third King of the First Dynasty, his name means 'Horus Cobra', also referred to as Uadji (Wadj and Zet), his tomb is located at Abydos (Tomb Z).  The funerary stele is inscribed with the royal serekh containing a snake hieroglyph, surmounted by the Horus falcon with the 'palace facade' design in the lower half (now housed at the Louvre, Paris).


Attestations:

  • Seal impression from mastaba V in Gizeh
  • Tomb Z in Abydos (his own tomb)
  • Inscriptions from tomb 3504 in Saqqara. The tomb might belong to the official Sekhemka, who served under king Djer



Attestations in the Petrie Museum:

  • Copper tools from Abydos, subsidiary tomb 387 of the enclosure of Djet




Serekh containing the name of Djet, on display at the Louvre.
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PostSubject: Re: Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt   Sat Sep 17, 2016 1:32 pm

 King: Hotepsekhemwy
Dynasty 2
Length of Reign: 38 Years
Date: circa 2890 - 226867BC



First King of the Second Dynasty, his name means 'Pleasing in Powers'.
Hotepsekhemwy is the founder of the second dynasty. 
The Horus Name (Hotepsekhemwy) was the royal titulary most important name in this period; it was received at the accession.  His birth name was Hotep which passed in the royal titulary as both Nesut-bity and Nebty name of the Horus Hotepsekhemui.  We are told that his nebty name meant, "the Two Mistresses are at peace".


Attestations:

  • Seal-impressions found at tomb of Qa'a at Umm el Qaab
  • Seal impressions found in the western one of the two Saqqara tombs south of the Netjeryhet complex, under the pyramid of Unas.
  • The Royal estate of Hotepsekhemwy is attested on the seals with the name 'Hwt Nswt-Bity Nebty HTP'.
  • Statuette (pink granite) of a kneeling priest (Cairo C.G.1) once called Hotepdief and now more probably identifiable as Redjit .
  • A bone cylinder perhaps from Helwan is at the Brooklyn Museum displays the serekh of Hotepsekhemwy in simplified but sharp drawing.
  • 4 stone bowls fragmentary inscriptions found by Petrie in the Umm el Qaab tomb P (Peribsen) and one found in the tomb V (Khasekhemwy) at Abydos. 
  • Two inscribed stone bowls of Hotepsekhemwy were found by Reisner in Menkaura' s pyramid complex at Giza .
  • An alabaster vessel fragment also bearing his serekh has been found by Brunton in the grave 3112 of Badari.
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PostSubject: Re: Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt   Sat Sep 17, 2016 1:59 pm

King: Sanakhte
Dynasty 3
Length of Reign: 18 Years
Date: 2686 - 22667BC
First King of the Third Dynasty, his name means 'Strong Protection'.
Sanakht sometimes given as Nebka, is little known despite 18 years of rule. 
He may have gained his position by marriage to a daughter of Khasekhemwy, his predecessor as pharaoh. 
Sanakht's existence is attested by a mastaba tomb and a graffito,
among other objects, and a large mastaba near Abydos contained some fragments bearing the name of Sanakht.
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PostSubject: Re: Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt   Sat Sep 17, 2016 2:28 pm




King: Sneferu
Dynasty 4
Length of Reign: 24 Years
Date: 2613 - 2589 BC


First King of the Fourth Dynasty. He built at least three famous pyramids that survive to this day and introduced major innovations in the design and construction of pyramids in Ancient Egypt.
The Papyrus Prisse, a Middle Kingdom source, supports the fact that King Huni was indeed Snefru’s predecessor. It states that “the majesty of the king of Upper and Lower Egypt, Huni, came to the landing place (i.e., died), and the majesty of the king of Upper and Lower Egypt, Snefru, was raised up as a beneficent king in this entire land…”

The most well known monuments from Sneferu’s reign are the three pyramids he is considered to have built in Dahshur (the Bent Pyramid and the Red Pyramid) and Meidum (Meidum pyramid).


The Bent Pyramid







The Red Pyramid




The Maidum Pyramid.





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